In the third quarter of 2023, the above selected countries experienced mixed growth rates in public spending. Germany and Italy decreased public spending compared to the same quarter of 2022 due to the stepwise withdrawals of the fiscal stimulus packages to support households and firms during the energy crisis. They have, however, slightly increased expenditure compared to the previous quarter. The United States, on the other hand, have increased public spending by more than 3% compared to the same quarter of 2022. This increase is fueled by the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), a massive subsidy-based program to boost investments in clean energy and in the healthcare system. Public spending among OECD countries has increased on average by almost 0.7% relative to the previous quarter and 1.9% relative to the same quarter of the previous year.